From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, open systems can maintian themselves in a state of high statistical improbability, of order and organization.

Ludwig von Bertalanffy

Born: September 19, 1901

Died: June 12, 1972 (Age 70)

Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy was an Austrian biologist known as one of the founders of general systems theory (GST), the "conceptual part" of which was first introduced by Alexander Bogdanov. This is an interdisciplinary practice that describes systems with interacting components, applicable to biology, cybernetics and other fields. Bertalanffy proposed that the classical laws of thermodynamics applied to closed systems, but not necessarily to "open systems" such as living things. His mathematical model of an organism's growth over time, published in 1934, is still in use today.

Available Documents: 1

General System Theory
March 17, 1969
An attempt to formulate common laws that apply to virtually every scientific field, this conceptual approach has had a profound impact on such widely diverse disciplines as biology, economics, psychology, and demography.

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