An artifact is an inclusion in some system, made by animals or man. Spider webs, bird nests, beaver dams, houses, books, machines, music, paintings, and language are artifacts. They may or may not be prostheses, inventions which carry out some critical process essential to a living system. An artificial pacemaker for a human heart is an example of an artifact which can replace a pathological process with a healthy one. Insulin and thyroxine are replacement drugs which are human artifacts. Chemical, mechanical, or electronic artifacts have been constructed which carry out some functions of all levels of living systems.

James Grier Miller

Born: July 17, 1916

Died: November 7, 2002 (Age 86)

James Grier Miller was an American biologist, a pioneer of systems science, and academic administrator. He originated the modern use of the term "behavioral science," founded and directed the multi-disciplinary Mental Health Research Institute at the University of Michigan, and originated the living systems theory.

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