The suprasystem of any living system is the next higher system in which it is a component or subsystem. For example, the supraystem of a cell or tissue is the organ it is in; the suprasystem of an organism is the group it is in at the time. Presumably every system has a suprasystem except the “universe.”

James Grier Miller

Born: July 17, 1916

Died: November 7, 2002 (Age 86)

James Grier Miller was an American biologist, a pioneer of systems science, and academic administrator. He originated the modern use of the term "behavioral science," founded and directed the multi-disciplinary Mental Health Research Institute at the University of Michigan, and originated the living systems theory.

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