Living systems require matter-energy, needing specific types of it, in adequate amounts. Heat, light, water, minerals, vitamins, foods, fuels, and raw materials of various kinds, for instance, may be required. Energy for the processes of living systems is derived from the breakdown of molecules (and, in a few recent cases, of atoms as well).

James Grier Miller

Born: July 17, 1916

Died: November 7, 2002 (Age 86)

James Grier Miller was an American biologist, a pioneer of systems science, and academic administrator. He originated the modern use of the term "behavioral science," founded and directed the multi-disciplinary Mental Health Research Institute at the University of Michigan, and originated the living systems theory.

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